Galatians 4

This post follows the Bible reading plan available at You can read all my New Testament notes in my book New Testament: Chapter by Chapter.

Chapter four continues the second section of the letter and the explanation of the inheritance available to all who believe in Jesus. Galatians 4:1-7 contains the wonderful truth that Jesus was born at just the right time in just the right manner to accomplish everything God wanted to do, namely, to adopt rebel humans back into his spiritual family and make us free. This is important because we are all enslaved in sin by nature (Galatians 4:8-12; Ephesians 2:1-3), but in Christ we are freed from that. Paul wondered, then, why someone would place himself under any kind of restrictions again.

Galatians 4:13-20 breaks from Paul’s explanation of his doctrine to a personal appeal to his original readers. He reminded them of how they had received him. Even though he was violently ill, they were not repulsed by him, but rather received him and his message as if he were Jesus himself. In fact, Paul noted that they would have gouged out their own eyes and given them to him if they were able. 1

This chapter (and the second section) closes with an allegory (an extended metaphor), in which Paul likened the old covenant to Hagar and Ishmael. 2 While he was a legitimate physical son of Abraham, Ishmael was not the son through whom God’s promises would be fulfilled. In the same way, while the Law, symbolized by Mt. Sinai, was legitimately God’s way of leading Israel during that time, it was never meant to bring righteousness or salvation. As Hagar and Ishmael were slaves in Abraham’s household, those who subject themselves to the Law are slaves to it.

Sarah and Isaac (along with Mt. Zion), on the other hand, represent the only true way of salvation, through Jesus. As they were free persons in Abraham’s household, those who come to God through faith in Jesus find freedom from the Law. Why, then, would someone place himself back into slavery when he had been set free?


  1. This offhand remark in Galatians 4:15 possibly hints to Paul’s “THORN IN THE FLESH,” a constant reminder of his weakness and immense privilege (2 Corinthians 12:7-10).
  2. This is the only place in the New Testament that we find the English word “allegory” or its Greek source, ἀλληγορέω (allegoreo). An allegory is an extended metaphor, usually with several pieces connecting the two things being compared. This should not be confused with the allegorical method of interpreting the Bible that requires looking “deeper” than the literal meaning of the text, usually due to perceived errors or problems that the interpreter has with the text. The literal interpretation method allows the use of allegory and metaphor as legitimate uses of the language. The allegorical interpretation ignores the literal meaning of the text or supplements it with additional, “spiritual” meanings.

Galatians 1

This post follows the Bible reading plan available at You can read all my New Testament notes in my book New Testament: Chapter by Chapter.

Galatians is possibly the earliest letter we have from Paul. 1 Unlike most of his other letters, this was written to “THE CHURCHES OF GALATIA” (Galatians 1:2) rather than to an individual congregation. Paul visited 2 these churches during his first missionary tour (Acts 13-14), before returning to Antioch and subsequently defending God’s work among the Gentiles at the Council of Jerusalem (Acts 15). The purpose of that council was to decide what Gentiles were required to do to fully participate in the Church. Specifically, the debate was over the circumcision of Gentiles. After much debate, the apostles and elders finally determined that only belief was necessary, as with the Jews, yet they encouraged the Gentiles to refrain from a few practices that would unnecessarily offend the Jews among them (Acts 15:19-21).

Paul’s letter to the Galatian believers is a treatise on justification by grace through faith alone, second only to Romans in its importance to our understanding of the doctrine of salvation. The entire letter is an explanation and defense of that doctrine because the Galatians were turning away from it due to a contingent of Jewish legalists who demanded that they accept circumcision as a part of salvation or spiritual maturity. If this letter were written later in Paul’s ministry (as some infer from Galatians 4:13 3), after the Jerusalem Council, it seems he would certainly have referred to that decision to shut down the claims of his detractors. Instead, Paul’s entire argument was based on the doctrine of justification which came to him directly from Jesus and the Hebrew Scriptures.

Chapter one does not follow the pattern of Paul’s other letters, or those of the day, in that he did not offer a word/prayer of thanksgiving after his greeting. Instead, he jumped immediately into the purpose of his letter – “I AM ASTONISHED THAT YOU ARE SO QUICKLY DESERTING THE ONE WHO CALLED YOU BY THE GRACE OF CHRIST AND ARE FOLLOWING A DIFFERENT GOSPEL” (Galatians 1:6). “So quickly” seems to indicate that it had not been long since they had accepted the gospel that they were turning away from, though the Greek word can also mean “so easily.” Paul noted that they had deserted, not just the gospel, but the Savior himself, and began to follow “A DIFFERENT GOSPEL,” another message they had been given by those who would “DISTORT THE GOSPEL OF CHRIST” (Galatians 1:7). This brought Paul’s fiercest condemnation – eternal hell for those who preach a heretical message of salvation (Galatians 1:8-9). Today, this includes many false gospels in religions like Mormonism, Jehovah’s Witness, Roman Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, Islam, and so many others.

It seems that Paul’s accusers painted a picture of him as a “hit-and-run” charlatan. As some of his other letters show (especially 2 Corinthians), they claimed that he did not genuinely care about his listeners, changed his message to gain favor with his audience, and was in it primarily for what he could get out of it. It seems they also continued to attack his authority as a genuine apostle (Galatians 1:1). His response was measured but firm.

First, he stated that one cannot work to please both people and God (Galatians 1:10). Second, he insisted that his message was not fluid. In fact, it did not even come from a fluid source, from whom he could have received the wrong message. Instead, Paul’s message came from Jesus himself (Galatians 1:2, 11-12). Third, his own story of dramatic life change proved that he broke close ties with his former colleagues and intentionally stayed away from the apostles in Jerusalem so he would not be swayed by anyone’s doctrine except the Savior’s (Galatians 1:13-24). When he finally did begin to meet with the other apostles, it was with only a few of them and only for a short time. Fourth, he declared that God had chosen him for this very specific ministry, that his previous life was utterly opposed to that calling, and that it required direct intervention by God to set him on the correct path. Thus, anything his opponents claimed could only make him more, not less, insistent on his message.


  1. This is certainly debated, but it makes the most sense to me when all the available facts are considered.
  2. While it is possible that he founded them during this tour, it is also possible (and more likely) that he founded at least some of them during his tenure in “SYRIA AND CILICIA” (Galatians 1:21), years before Barnabas called him to Antioch (Acts 11:25-26).
  3. They see Paul’s statement, “I PREACHED THE GOSPEL TO YOU THE FIRST TIME” (NASB), to mean that he had been there at least twice before writing this letter. Even so, he easily could have been there more than once in the fourteen years of ministry (Galatians 2:1) preceding this letter.

2 Corinthians 13

Chapter thirteen concludes this letter with Paul urging the Corinthians to examine themselves before God before Paul arrived so that his fears (2 Corinthians 12:20-21) would not be realized (2 Corinthians 13:1-3). He warned them that he would not be timid in using his apostolic authority to discipline any of them who rejected his letters and teaching, choosing to continue in their sin. He challenged them to make sure they were truly “in the faith” (2 Corinthians 13:5), probably a reference both to initial salvation and sanctification and to the orthodox teachings of Christianity since he did not specify just “in Christ.” Even believers can “fail the test” of obedience (2 Corinthians 13:5) and be disqualified from serving Christ (1 Corinthians 9:23-27), something Paul did not want for them. Even if it seemed that Paul failed, he did not want them to fail (2 Corinthians 13:6-9).

Paul claimed that this letter, no matter how harsh it was from time to time, was actually a demonstration of his great love for them (2 Corinthians 13:10). Solomon wrote that wounds from a friend can be good (Proverbs 27:6), and Paul chose to wound them from a distance so that they could enjoy each other in person.

The final verse 1 is an inspired acknowledgment of the Trinity. Under the Holy Spirit’s guidance (2 Peter 1:21; 3:15-16), Paul referred to the three members of the Godhead as individual persons who are co-equal with each other. Although the word Trinity never occurs in Scripture, passages like this teach this doctrine clearly.


  1. English translations have it marked as either verse 13 or 14.